Новы курс Рузвельта

З пляцоўкі Вікіпедыя.
Перайсці да: рух, знайсці
Штогадовы валавы ўнутраны прадукт ЗША ў 1910-1960 гг. Выдзелена эпоха Вялікай дэпрэсіі (1929-1939 гг.)
Узровень беспрацоўя ў ЗША ў 1910-1960 гг. Выдзелена эпоха Вялікай дэпрэсіі (1929-1939 гг.)

«Новы курс» (англ.: New Deal) - назва эканамічнай палітыкі, якая праводзіцца адміністрацыяй Франкліна Дэлана Рузвельта пачынаючы з 1933 г. з мэтай выхаду з маштабнага эканамічнага крызісу (Вялікая дэпрэсія), які ахапіў ЗША ў 1929-1933.

Эканамічныя праграмы «Новага курсу» былі праведзены праз Кангрэс падчас першага прэзідэнцкага тэрміна Рузвельта ў 1933—1936 гг. Іх мэтай было палягчэнне становішча беспрацоўных, аднаўленне эканомікі і рэформа фінансавай сістэмы з мэтай прадухілення паўтору Вялікай дэпрэсіі. дэмакратычная партыя, якая падтрымлівала «Новы курс» Рузвельта, выражала інтарэсы белых паўднёўцаў, этнічных меншасцяў і прафсаюзаў. Рэспубліканская партыя ў гэты перыяд была расколата, частка рэспубліканцаў заставалася ў апазіцыі да палітыкі Рузвельта, лічачы, што яна супярэчыць інтарэсам бізнесу, а другая частка часткова падтрымлівала яе. Прыхільнікі рэформ сфармавалі «кааліцыю новага курсу», якая выступала на выбарах адзіным фронтам да 1960х гадоў, але ўжо з 1938 г. і па 1964 г. Кангрэс кантралявала апазіцыйная «кансерватыўная кааліцыя». У выніку шматлікія эканамічныя праграмы «Новага курсу», такія як праграма працаўладкавання беспрацоўных, былі згорнуты да канца Другой сусветнай вайны[1]. Тым не менш, частка новаўвядзенняў Рузвельта, напрыклад, праграма сацыяльнага страхавання, Федэральная карпарацыя па страхаванні ўкладаў і Камісія па каштоўных паперах і біржам дзейнічаюць дагэтуль.

Назва «Новы курс» узыходзіць да назвы палітыкі папулярнага прэзідэнта ЗША ў 1901—1909 гг. Тэадора Рузвельта сумленны курс. «Новы курс» Франкліна Рузвельта працягваў палітыку шэрагу прэзідэнтаў эры прагрэсівізму (Тэадора Рузвельта, Говарда Тафта, Вудра Вільсана), якія паслядоўна ўзмацнялі ўдзел дзяржавы ў эканамічнай дзейнасці.

Літаратура[правіць | правіць зыходнік]

  • Alswang, John. The New Deal and American Politics (1978), voting analysis
  • Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: FDR’s Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope (2006), popular account
  • Badger, Anthony J. The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933—1940. (2002) general survey from British perspective
  • Badger, Anthony J. FDR: The First Hundred Days (2008)
  • Badger, Anthony J. New Deal / New South: An Anthony J. Badger Reader (2007)
  • Beasley, Maurine H., Holly C. Shulman, Henry R. Beasley. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia (2001)
  • Bernstein, Barton J. «The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform». In Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, pp. 263-88. (1968), an influential New Left attack on the New Deal.
  • Bernstein, Irving. Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933—1941 (1970), cover labor unions
  • Best, Gary Dean. The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933—1938 (1993) ISBN 027594350X
  • Best, Gary Dean. Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933—1938. (1990) ISBN 0275935248
  • Best, Gary Dean. Retreat from Liberalism: Collectivists versus Progressives in the New Deal Years (2002) ISBN 0275946568
  • Blumberg Barbara. The New Deal and the Unemployed: The View from New York City (1977).
  • Brands, H.W. Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (2008)
  • Bremer William W. «Along the American Way: The New Deal’s Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed». Journal of American History 62 (December 1975): 636—652. online at JSTOR in most academic libraries
  • Brock William R. Welfare, Democracy and the New Deal (1988), a British view
  • Brinkley, Alan. The End Of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. (1995) what happened after 1937
  • Burns, Helen M. The American Banking Community and New Deal Banking Reforms, 1933—1935 (1974)
  • Chafe, William H. ed. The Achievement of American Liberalism: The New Deal and its Legacies (2003)
  • Charles, Searle F. Minister of Relief: Harry Hopkins and the Depression (1963)
  • Cobb, James and Michael Namaroto, eds. The New Deal and the South (1984).
  • Cohen, Adam, Nothing to Fear: FDR’s Inner Circle and the Hundred Days that Created Modern America (2009)
  • Conkin, Paul K. The New Deal. (1967), a brief New Left critique.
  • Conklin, Paul K. «The Myth of New Deal Radicalism». In Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) Brandywine Press, St. James, NY. ISBN 1-881-089-97-5
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, ed. The New Deal: Conflicting Interpretations and Shifting Perspectives. (1992), reader
  • Eden, Robert, ed. New Deal and Its Legacy: Critique and Reappraisal (1989), essays by scholars
  • Ekirch Jr., Arthur A. Ideologies and Utopias: The Impact of the New Deal on American Thought (1971)
  • Folsom, Burton. New Deal or Raw Deal? : How FDR’s Economic Legacy has Damaged America (2008) ISBN 1416592229
  • Fraser, Steve and Gary Gerstle, eds., The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, (1989), essays focused on the long-term results.
  • Garraty, John A. «The New Deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression», American Historical Review, 78, 4 (1973), pp. 907-44. in JSTOR
  • Goldman, Eric F. Rendezvous with Destiny: A History of Modern American Reform. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (1952) ISBN 1566633699
  • Gordon, Colin. New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics, 1920—1935 (1994)
  • Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. (1985). An encyclopedic reference.
  • Grant, Michael Johnston. Down and Out on the Family Farm: Rural Rehabilitation in the Great Plains, 1929—1945 (2002)
  • Hawley, Ellis W. The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (1966)
  • Higgs, Robert. Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government (1987), libertarian critique
  • Howard, Donald S. The WPA and Federal Relief Policy (1943)
  • Huibregtse, Jon R. American Railroad Labor and the Genesis of the New Deal, 1919—1935; (University Press of Florida; 2010; 172 pages)
  • Ingalls, Robert P. Herbert H. Lehman and New York’s Little New Deal (1975)
  • Jensen, Richard J. «The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression», Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 (1989) 553-83. in JSTOR
  • Kennedy, David M., "What the New Deal Did, " Political Science Quarterly, 124 (Summer 2009), 251-68.
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929—1945. (1999), survey
  • Kirkendall, Richard S. «The New Deal As Watershed: The Recent Literature», The Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Mar., 1968), pp. 839-852. in JSTOR, historiography
  • Ladd, Everett Carll and Charles D. Hadley. Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s (1975), voting behavior
  • Leff, Mark H. The Limits of Symbolic Reform: The New Deal and Taxation (1984)
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932—1940. (1963). A standard interpretive history.
  • Lindley, Betty Grimes and Ernest K. Lindley. A New Deal for Youth: The Story of the National Youth Administration (1938)
  • Lowitt, Richard. The New Deal and the West (1984).
  • McElvaine Robert S. The Great Depression 2nd ed (1993), social history
  • Neil M. Maher, Nature’s New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • Manza; Jeff. «Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal» Annual Review of Sociology: 2000, 26 (2000): 297—322.
  • Mathews, Jane De Hart. «Arts and the People: The New Deal Quest for a Cultural Democracy», Journal of American History 62 (1975): 316-39, in JSTOR
  • Malamud; Deborah C. «'Who They Are — or Were': Middle-Class Welfare in the Early New Deal» University of Pennsylvania Law Review v 151 #6 2003. pp 2019+.
  • McKinzie, Richard. The New Deal for Artists (1984), well illustrated scholarly study
  • Meriam; Lewis. Relief and Social Security The Brookings Institution. 1946. Highly detailed analysis and statistical summary of all New Deal relief programs
  • Milkis, Sidney M. and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. The New Deal and the Triumph of Liberalism (2002)
  • Mitchell, Broadus. Depression Decade: From New Era through New Deal, 1929—1941 (1947), survey by economic historian
  • Parker, Randall E. Reflections on the Great Depression (2002) interviews with 11 leading economists
  • Patterson, James T. The New Deal and the States: Federalism in Transition (Princeton UP, 1969).
  • Pederson, William D. ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (Blackwell Companions to American History) (2011); 35 essays by scholars; many deal with politics
  • Powell, Jim FDR’s Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression (2003) ISBN 0761501657
  • Polenberg, Richard. «The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933—1945 A Brief History with Documents» ISBN 0312133103
  • Rosenof, Theodore. Economics in the Long Run: New Deal Theorists and Their Legacies, 1933—1993 (1997)
  • Rosen, Elliot A. Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery (2005) ISBN 0813923689
  • [1] Rothbard, Murray. America's Great Depression (1963).
  • Saloutos, Theodore. The American Farmer and the New Deal (1982).
  • Savage, James D. Balanced Budgets & American Politics. Cornell University Press. 1988.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, (1957—1960), the classic narrative history.
  • Shlaes, Amity. The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression (2007) ISBN 0066211700
  • Singleton, Jeff. The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression (2000)
  • Sitkoff, Harvard. A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (2008)
  • Sitkoff, Harvard. ed. Fifty Years Later: The New Deal Evaluated. (1984). A friendly liberal evaluation.
  • Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. «State Capacity and Economic Intervention in the Early New Deal». Political Science Quarterly 97 (1982): 255-78. Online at JSTOR.
  • Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. «Explaining New Deal Labor Policy» American Political Science Reform (1977) 84:1297-1304 in JSTOR
  • Smith, Jason Scott. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933—1956 (2005).
  • Sternsher, Bernard ed., Hitting Home: The Great Depression in Town and Country (1970), essays by scholars on local history
  • Szalay, Michael. New Deal Modernism: American Literature and the Invention of the Welfare State (2000)
  • Tindall George B. The Emergence of the New South, 1915—1945 (1967). survey of entire South
  • Trout Charles H. Boston, the Great Depression, and the New Deal (1977)
  • Venn, Fiona (1998). The New Deal. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 1-57958-145-5. 
  • Ware, Susan. Beyond Suffrage: Women and the New Deal (1981)
  • Wecter, Dixon. The Age of the Great Depression, 1929—1941 (1948), social history
  • Zelizer; Julian E. «The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal: Fiscal Conservatism and the Roosevelt Administration, 1933—1938» Presidential Studies Quarterly . Volume: 30. Issue: 2. pp: 331+. (2000)
  • Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1951 (1951) full of useful data; online
  • Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (1976)
  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935—1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls
  • Carter, Susan B. et al. eds. The Historical Statistics of the United States (6 vol: Cambridge UP, 2006); huge compilation of statistical data; online at some universities
  • Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935—1971 3 vol (1972) summarizes results of each poll.
  • Lowitt, Richard and Beardsley Maurice, eds. One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickock Reports on the Great Depression (1981)
  • Moley, Raymond. After Seven Years (1939), conservative memoir by ex-Brain Truster
  • Nixon, Edgar B. ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs (3 vol 1969), covers 1933-37. 2nd series 1937-39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol print edition at some academic libraries.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ed. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (13 vol, 1938, 1945); public material only (no letters); covers 1928—1945.
  • Zinn, Howard, ed. New Deal Thought (1966), a compilation of primary sources.

Зноскі

  1. Paul S. Boyer, et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Volume 2. Wadsworth Cengage. 2010. p. 575

Спасылкі[правіць | правіць зыходнік]