Тэорыі прыбярэжных міграцый

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Тэорыі прыбярэжных міграцый існуюць у сучаснай палеаантрапалогіі і генетыцы[1][2][3]. Згодна з названымі тэорыямі, пасля ўзнікнення сучаснага чалавека ў Афрыцы 100-200 тысяч гадоў таму чалавек першапачаткова рассяляўся з Афрыкі на ўсход уздоўж ўзбярэжжа[4][5][6][7][8].

Тэорыя прыбярэжнай міграцыі ў Азіі і Акіяніі[правіць | правіць зыходнік]

У ходзе прыбярэжнага рассялення, як мяркуецца, былі першапачаткова праз Баб-эль-Мандэбскі праліў (80-45 тыс. гадоў назад)[9] заселеныя Аравійскі паўвостраў, Індастан, Паўднёва-Усходняя Азія, Новая Гвінея, Аўстралія (40 тыс. гадоў назад)[10], прыбярэжны Кітай і Японія[11][12]. Гэты перыяд звязваецца з распаўсюджваннем у названых вышэй рэгіёнах мітахандрыяльных гаплагрупаўM і N, а таксама гаплагрупаў Y-храмасомы C і D[5][6][8][8]. Згодна з гэтай тэорыі, людзі, падобныя сучасным негрытосам або прота-аўстралоідам, прыбылі на Аравійскі паўвостраў з Афрыкі, затым на паўднёвае ўзбярэжжа Індастана, затым на Андаманскія астравы і ў Інданэзію, адкуль ужо рассяліліся на поўдзень, у Аўстралію, і на поўнач, у Японію[12]. Генаграфічны праект, ініцыяваны часопісам National Geographic, выкарыстоўвае тэрмін «прыбярэжны клан» для апісання першапачатковых чалавечых групаў, адносіўшыхся да гаплагрупы C (Y-ДНК), якія рассяліліся на ўсход з Афрыкі ўздоўж ўзбярэжжа каля 50 тыс. гадоў таму[13].

Тэорыя прыбярэжнай міграцыі ў Новы свет[правіць | правіць зыходнік]

У рамках гэтых тэорый часам разглядаецца пытанне аб перасяленні чалавека праз Берынгаў перашыек, які злучаў у эпоху апошняга ледніковага перыяду Паўночную Амерыку з Сібір'ю, і далей-у Цэнтральную і Паўднёвую Амерыку ўздоўж заходняга амерыканскага ўзбярэжжа[14]. Зробленыя ў нядаўні час адкрыцці, у прыватнасці, абапіраюцца на тое, што асадкавыя пароды ў пячорах Порт-Эліза на востраве Ванкувер паказваюць на існаванне ў гэтых месцах спрыяльнага для чалавека клімату каля 16 тыс. гадоў таму[15]. З іншага боку, нягледзячы на паказанае даследаванне, дадзены тэзіс па-ранейшаму застаецца спрэчным[7][16].

Гл. таксама[правіць | правіць зыходнік]

Зноскі

  1. Phillip Endicott, Mait Metspalu and Toomas Kivisild (2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-5561-4. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x05p66517331h166/fulltext.pdf. "... The concept of a coastal migration was already envisioned in 1962 by the ..." 
  2. Megan Bartlett (Spring 2006). Around the World in Four Millennia. Harvard Science Review. http://hcs.harvard.edu/~hsr/spring2006/bartlett.pdf. "... Scientists have followed their movements through DNA markers, culminating in what is known as the coastal migration model. ..." 
  3. Renee Hetherington, Edward Wiebe, Andrew J. Weaver, Shannon L. Carto, Michael Eby, Roger MacLeod (2007). Climate, African and Beringian subaerial continental shelves, and migration of early peoples. Quaternary International, International Union for Quaternary Research. http://www.pcsn.ca/pubs_2008/Hetherington,%20R.,%20E.%20Wiebe,%20A.%20J.%20Weaver,%20S.%20L.%20Carto,%20M.%20Eby,%20R.%20MacLeod,%20Climate,%20African%20and%20Beringian%20subaerial%20continental%20shelves,%20and%20migration%20of%20early%20peoples,%20Quat.%20International,%202008.pdf. "... Alternatively, the coastal migration hypothesis suggests that people migrated along the southern edge of the exposed Beringian shelf and down the Pacific ..." 
  4. Both Australian Aborigines and Europeans Rooted in Africa
  5. 5,0 5,1 A single origin, several dispersal hypothesis
  6. 6,0 6,1 Searching for traces of the Southern Dispersal Архівавана 10 мая 2012 года., by Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr, et al.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Nina G. Jablonski (2002). The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World. University of California Press. ISBN 0940228505. https://books.google.com/books?id=RI32r548fUwC. "... Recent discoveries and events have breathed new life into the coastal migration theory, which suggests just the opposite of the ice-free corridor hypothesis — that maritime peoples first traveled around the North Pacific Coast then followed river valleys leading inland from the sea. Having a coastal route available, however, does not prove that such a maritime migration took place. Archaeological evidence for early boat use from islands along the western margin of the Pacific may support the idea that such a journey was technologically feasible, but archaeological data from the Pacific coast of North and South America are presently ambiguous about the origins of the earliest coastal occupants. ..." 
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 Vincent Macaulay, et al. (13 May 2005, Vol. 308. no. 5724, pp. 1034 - 1036). Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes. http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/206/2/MacSinAbstract.pdf. "... mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated "relict" populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa, most likely via a southern coastal route, through India and onward into southeast Asia and Australasia. There was an early offshoot, leading ultimately to the settlement of the Near East and Europe, but the main dispersal from India to Australia 65,000 years ago was rapid, most likely taking only a few thousand years. ..." 
  9. Откуда пришли кроманьонцы?
  10. Открытие Австралии. Первые колонисты
  11. Kevin O. Pope and John E. Terrell (9 Oct 2007, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-21). Environmental setting of human migrations in the circum-Pacific region. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119402406/abstract. "... The expansion of modern humans out of Africa, following a coastal route into southern Asia, was initially thwarted by a series of large and abrupt environmental changes. A period of relatively stable climate and sea level from c. 45,000 yr bp to 40,000 yr bp supported a rapid coastal expansion of modern humans throughout much of Southeast Asia, enabling them to reach the coasts of northeast Russia and Japan by 38,000–37,000 yr bp ..." 
  12. 12,0 12,1 Spencer Wells (2002). The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069111532X. https://books.google.com/books?id=WAsKm-_zu5sC. "... the population of south-east Asia prior to 6000 years ago was composed largely of groups of hunter-gatherers very similar to modern Negritos ... So, both the Y-chromosome and the mtDNA paint a clear picture of a coastal leap from Africa to south-east Asia, and onward to Australia ... DNA has given us a glimpse of the voyage, which almost certainly followed a coastal route va India ..." 
  13. The Genographic Project: Genetic Markers, Haplogroup D (M174). 2008. https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html. "... Haplogroup D may have accompanied another group, the Coastal Clan (haplogroup C) on the first major wave of migration out of Africa around 50,000 years ago. Taking advantage of the plentiful seaside resources, these intrepid explorers followed the coastline of Africa through the southern Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. Alternatively, they may have made the trek at a later time, following in the footsteps of the Coastal Clan ..." 
  14. Todd A. Surovell (Volume 44, Number 4, August/October 2003). Simulating Coastal Migration in New World Colonization. Current Anthropology. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/377651'. 
  15. Majid Al-Suwaidi (2006). A Multi-disciplinary Study of Port Eliza Cave Sediments and Their Implications for Human Coastal Migration. Library and Archives Canada (Bibliothèque et Archives Canada). ISBN 0494032995. https://books.google.com/books?id=Az-9AQAACAAJ. "... A multi-disciplinary study at Port Eliza cave on Vancouver Island has refined the timing and character of late Wisconsinan environments and has significant implications for the human Coastal Migration Hypothesis ..." 
  16. Christy G. Turner (2003, vol. 68, no2, pp. 391-395). Three ounces of sea shells and one fish bone do not a coastal migration make. Society for American Archaeology. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14790600.